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The Arg-e Bam, the world's largest brick building, is one of the most important and most valuable historical landmarks of Iran. The predecessors of this massive historical complex built on a large rock near Bam city in Kerman province. The whole building is a great fortress located in the heart of the citadel, but due to the appearance of the Arg-e Bam, which is also the highest part of the complex, the whole building of the castle is called the Arg-e Bam.
The Arg-e Bam is part of a large system of historical monuments; The ancient city of Darzin dates back to the first millennium BC in the northwest of Bam today, And monuments of the city's neighborhoods have survived since the early Islamic centuries, and only a small village in the western region of the country is now populated; The dokhtar's castle is located in the north of the rposhtrud river, and in the south of the building of Chartag and Kushk and Pir-Alamdar buildings, In the east and near the citadel, the historical monument of Rassoul Mosque has been erected around the citadel. Although the background of these buildings has not been established, Although the life of these buildings has not been established, however, their dating from the early centuries of the Islamic era to the Ilkhan period seems to be estimated.
This historic Arg is one of several architectural forms including the walls of the fence, the tower, and the gates, the mosque, the market, the inn, the caravanserai, the school, the bathroom, the Zurkhaneh and the residential neighborhoods with the houses of the Livonians, the governorate including the barracks, the stables The mill, the house of the commander of the army and the governor's domicile include the ruling house, the four-story mansion and the observatory.Bam is located 193 km southwest of Kerman and is located in the Desert between Jabal Barz and the Kaboodi mountains. Bam is 1050 meters above sea level and is 19480 square kilometers. The earliest signs of civilization have been discovered in the Bidron hills 15 km from the city."َArg-e Bam and its Cultural Space" has been registered on the UNESCO World Heritage List. This huge citadel on the Silk Road was built in the 5th century BC and continued to be used until 1850 AD. It is definitely not clear why it was not used anymore.
Although there is a controversy surrounding the history of the formation of this historic citadel between the Parthian periods and even before it during the Achaemenid period, most of the buildings that were built before the earthquake were attributed to the Timurid period to the Qajar period. Nevertheless, parts like the porch of the mosque with a large and varied scale remind of much older periods (like the 4th century AH during the Samanids to the 7th century AH during the Seljuk period). Finally, the Bam Arg has been inhabited during the Qajar period.Considering the architecture used in this collection, one can clearly see the authentic Iranian architecture, which is a perfect example of the skill, tact and creativity of the builders of the building, Even after several centuries, and given the advances made in the field of building materials and materials, the existing bricks to repair damaged parts are not the quality of the early clay.
When the entrance gate of the city was closed, no animal or human could enter. Residents could live their lives in long periods because they had access to water wells, gardens and domestic animals in the Arg. When the military city was built, the inhabitants could stay in the city, and the soldiers could defend it because the Arg was enclosed by tall walls and towers.
The Arg-e Bam is in fact a huge fortress located in the center of the citadel. The materials used in it are mainly from raw clay, mortar, clay and straw, and in rare cases carcasses of stone, brick and trunk of the palm tree. Perhaps because of the huge citadel of the Arg, which is also considered to be the highest section of the complex, they have named all this monument to the Arg-e Bam. According to information announced by cultural heritage experts, the area is 180,000 square meters, which includes 7 meters high and 1815 meters in length.
The government sector includes such parts as the military fortress, the four-seventh mansion (this mansion consists of three floors and a state palace where all the commands and rulings of the city and its functions were carried out by the ruler at that time), the barracks, the water well into the depth of 40 meters and torso that accommodates 200 horseheads are made.
The slumdog district around the governorate includes the main entrance of the city, public buildings such as the school and places for residents' sports, the market leading to the main entrance to the castle and about 400 homes. Among the houses in this section, there are three styles in their construction, which are interesting in their own way. Small houses that have only two or three rooms, and the Arg-e Bam collection seems to have been considered for the poor. Large-size houses and more rooms of three to four rooms. It is clear that these types of houses are built for the middle class. For some of these houses, the porch is also embedded. But magnificent mansions with more rooms, probably due to different seasons of the year, are made in different parts.
Unfortunately, after the earthquake that occurred in 2003 in the city of Bam, the fragmentation of the Arg-e Bam was damaged. Many countries, including Japan, Italy and France, have partnered with Iran since the start of the rebuilding and restoration of the enormous collection of ancient Bam.Fortunately, with the efforts of the Cultural Heritage and Restoration Organization, it has been removed from the list.
Bam, Kerman Province