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About a third of Iran's territory is mountainous. Iran's mountains belong to the third era of geology, and some of them have caused the formation of hot and mineral water springs with volcanic origin.
The most important mountain range of Iran is Alborz and Zagros, and the highest peak in Iran, Damavand, is located 5671 meters high in the north-east of Tehran. The most important peaks of Sabalan are 4880 meters high in the west of the country, Sahand with 3707 meters high in southern Tabriz, Takht-e-Soleiman with a height of 4820 meters in Mazandaran, Zardkuh with a height of 4550 meters in Chahar Mahal and Bakhtiari, Dena with 4309 meters in height Yasuj and Taftan with a height of 3941 meters in the south of Zahedan, each of which naturally has certain characteristics.
In general, the mountains of Iran consist of four main courses, the northern mountains or the Alborz Mountains, the Zagros Mountains, the central mountains and the eastern mountains.
Alborz mountain range with an area of 51,500 square kilometers is located in the northern part of Iran. This mountain range, which begins from the southwest of the Caspian Sea, passes through the south of the Caspian Sea to the north of Khorasan, is divided into three parts of the mountains of the southwest of the Caspian Sea, the Alborz mountain range and the northern mountains of Khorasan. In addition to placing the highest point of Iran, Mount Damavand, with a height of 5671 meters in this mountain range, you can mention the mountains such as Kalam-e-Kuh, Siahlan, Paloun Neck, Shahvar, Sabalan, Sahand.
The Zagros Mountain Range, with an area of 323,000 square kilometers, is the longest mountain range in Iran. This mountain range, which covers the west, southwest, and part of the south of the country, starts from Ararat in Turkey and extends from the northwest to the southeast and the Sari Dash Mountains, Chehel Cheshmeh, Panjeh Ali, Peru, Alvand Bakhtiari Mountains, Poshtokh, Pishkv, Oshtaran Mountain and Zardukh Mountains. The highest peak of the Zagros mountain range is Dinara Mountain or Dena with a height of 4409 meters. The highest mountains of this mountain range include the mountains of the slave Rish, Shahour, Peru, Alvand, Oshtrankouh, Zardkouh and Mount Faraghan.
The central Iranian mountain range, with the northwest-southeast direction, has been stretched to the center of Iran in the long wall from Kashan to the central highlands of Balochistan. This mountain range with an area of about 143 thousand square kilometers consists of two main mountain ranges called Ghahrood mountain range and Banan mountain range. Ghahrood mountain range extends from south Tehran and near Kashan to Kerman, and the Banan mountain range, which is the mountain range of Ghahrood, extends from southern Kerman to Makran and Baluchestan areas. Among the most important Iranian central mountains are: Gaflanokuh, Karkas Mountains, Nayin Mountains, Laleh Zar, Shirkouh, Povar, Bahareh Mountains, Thousand, Bahman Mountains and Mount Bahman.
The eastern mountain range with the northern-southern direction has discontinuous heights that start from the north of Khorasan and extend to Sistan and Baluchestan province. The highest peak of this mountain range is the Taftan single and volcanic peaks with a height of 4110 meters. The most important feature of this mountain is the presence of white smoke above the summit, indicating that the volcano is active in this mountain. Other mountains of this mountain range should be from the mountains of Bazman, Bagheran, Ahangaran, forty tons, Binalod and a thousand mosques.