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Mount Damavand, which is known as the highest mountain in Iran and the Middle East, as well as the highest volcanic peak in Asia, is located in northern Iran. Mount Damavand is located in the north of Iran, in the central part of the Alborz mountain range in the south of the Caspian Sea and in the Larijan district of Amol city. This magnificent mountain is located in Mazandaran province in terms of divisions. In addition, this mountain is visible from the cities of Tehran, Qom and Varamin, as well as the Caspian Sea, during the sunny and sunny weather.
Various sources of measurements have been proposed for the elevation of Damavand peak from the sea level. According to the National Portal of Statistics of Iran, the altitude of this summit is 5,610 meters; other sources, including the National Geospatial Data Base of Iran and the site of the NASA Earth Observatory, have a height of 5,670 meters and 5,671 meters for the summit of this mountain Mentioned.
In the solar year 1390, the National Geographic magazine ranked Mount Damavand in northern Iran in the tenth of the world's most dangerous mountains and peaks.
Mount Damavand is a volcanic mountain with volcanic activity, the volcanic activity of Damavand Mountains is currently restricted to the sublimation of sulfur gases. The last eruption of Mount Damavand was 38,500 years ago, from which it has been dormant since then.
Now Damavand volcano is in the semi-active phase. The presence of sulfur and hot springs in the southeast of the mountain, as well as sulfur emissions, are signs of this activity. These eruptions are seen at a distance of 500 meters from the top of its corner and on the South Front, which is known as the Sulfur Hill(Tappe googerdi). The largest cavity from which sulfur gas is released is located above the sulfur hill near the summit and the mouth of the volcano, where sulfur vapor, like a large column, is driven out of a high pressure hole, and up to a few meters high goes. This steam column is also visible from Damavand slopes
The diameter of the crater of the volcano of Damavand Peak is about 400 meters, which covers a lake from the ice of its crater, as well as signs of the existence of openings on the southern and northern side of the mountains.
The minimum temperature in Damavand peaks in cold seasons, as winter, reaches 60 degrees below zero, and in other seasons the temperature of the mountains falls to one and two degrees below zero.
The wind speed on Mount Damavand also has strange numbers. Because Damavand's hurricane velocity sometimes passes even 150 km / h. Wind speeds in the foothills have reached even 70 km / h. Most of the winds are from west and northwest.
The air pressure at Damavand Peak is half the air pressure at sea level.
So far, 7 sailors and Shelters have been built on the main routes of Damavand ascents, including
In addition, the Polour Mountaineering Headquarters in the Western Front and the Rine on the Southern Front offers facilities such as walking paths up the climb, the possibility of a ride and a mountaineering guide.
Mountaineers can take various routes to climb the tip of Damavand Mountains. In the following, we will introduce some of the known ascent routes.
The start of this route is also the village of Nandle. This route begins from the northern part of Mount Damavand in Cham bin plain. At the beginning of this route, you have a gentle slope that comes to the first time. Thereafter, you will see the darkened soils near the Dobisell. After you move from the second sanctuary, you must climb to the northeast and after passing through the volcanic rocks you will find a route that will be accessible from the north-east front, and then you will reach the summit. The reason is that this route is a bit hard, it's not that the water is well-known, and you may have to melt for the water you need. If you have the ability to carry water, you can carry a bottle of mineral water for two days.
This route is another way to climb Damavand. If you want to go to the Western Front, you also have to go to the road of Haraz, go to the Polur and enter the Lar Dam from there. The climbing base of this route starts from a parking lot in the Vararo area, which is about 3400 meters high. Upon reaching this point, you must go to the Simorgh Shelter. The good feature of the Simorgh sanctuary is the presence of water there. Then you continue your path to the western edge where you will cross the fridge and continue along the rocky and sulfur soils. Climbers say that the steepness of reaching the summit from the western front is very high, but this may shorten the route. You need to reach the summit to move to the summit from this steep slope, which is rocky. It can be said that it takes about 2 hours to reach the Simorgh sanctuary, and then, due to gradients and due to physical strength, breath, readiness and ... the time to reach the summit is different.
It can be said that this is the oldest way to climb Damavand, and of course, the climbers say the easiest way is. You need to go to Polur and Rine to access this route. At 65 km of the Haraz road, you must enter the village of Polur, then move Lar and then to the Rine Road.In the middle of the road, you see a path that is Dirt road and northward, with a small sign that is about 6.5 km from the climbing base.
The beginning of the ascent to Damavand from the southern part, is from the Sahib Al Zaman mosque, which is 3,000 meters high. The mules are for local people who can use them to pay for cargo from this distance to the harbor.
You should start your path from the left of a icy waterfall and after the third storey and get to a sulfur hill that can be considered as the result of the last small eruptions of Damavand Peak.It can be said that from the first harbor to the third harbor(The Bargah sevvom), the average is 4 hours. From the third harbor(The Bargah sevvom) to the summit of Damavand, it takes about 6 hours depending on your speed and your ability.